Lycopeen

Lycopeen is een onverzadigde koolwaterstofcarotenoïde die qua structuur vergelijkbaar is met bètacaroteen, maar zonder provitamine A-activiteit (7896). Het is een in vet oplosbaar rood pigment dat wordt gesynthetiseerd door planten en micro-organismen en wordt aangetroffen in voedingsmiddelen zoals tomaten, guave, roze grapefruit, rode sinaasappels, abrikozen, rozenbottels en watermeloen (7896,60484,60523,92173).

Belangrijkste kenmerken:
  • Vaak gebruikt voor kanker, hypertensie, hyperlipidemie en vele andere aandoeningen, maar er is geen sterk bewijs om enig gebruik te ondersteunen.
  • Waarschijnlijk veilig bij orale inname in doses van 15-45 mg per dag gedurende maximaal 6 maanden. Bijwerkingen zijn zeldzaam, maar kunnen milde gastro-intestinale problemen omvatten.
  • Geen bekende belangrijke geneesmiddelinteracties.

In de VS is meer dan 80 procent van het lycopeen in de voeding afkomstig van tomaten en verwerkte tomatenproducten, waaronder sauzen, sap, ketchup, pasta en soepen (92173). Een portie verse tomaten van 130 gram bevat tussen de 4 mg en 10 mg lycopeen, afhankelijk van de variëteit, groeiomstandigheden en rijpheid (92175). Spaghettisaus bevat ongeveer 22 mg lycopeen per portie van 125 gram, ketchup bevat 3,3 mg per eetlepel en tomatensap bevat ongeveer 20 mg per portie van 240 ml (92175).

Lycopeen werd voor het eerst geïsoleerd uit zwarte bryony bessen door Hartsen in 1873 en uit tomaten door Millardet uit Frankrijk in 1875. Het kreeg de naam lycopeen door Schunck in een presentatie aan de Royal Society of London in 1903 (92175).

In 2004 ontving de Amerikaanse Food an Drug Administration (FDA) petities om gekwalificeerde gezondheidsclaims toe te staan ​​voor producten die lycopeen bevatten om het risico op bepaalde vormen van kanker te verminderen. De FDA vond geen geloofwaardig bewijs voor een verband tussen de inname van lycopeen en een verminderd risico op prostaat-, long-, colorectale, maag-, borst-, eierstok-, endometrium- of pancreaskanker (15747).

Gebruik

Oraal

Oraal wordt lycopeen gebruikt voor het voorkomen van atherosclerose, hart- en vaatziekten (HVZ), kanker, cataracten, amyotrofische laterale sclerose (ALS, de ziekte van Lou Gehrig), leeftijdsgebonden maculaire degeneratie (AMD), de ziekte van Parkinson en zonnebrand. Lycopeen wordt ook gebruikt voor de behandeling van prostaatkanker, goedaardige prostaathyperplasie (BPH), chronische prostatitis en chronisch bekkenpijnsyndroom (CP / CPPS), mannelijke onvruchtbaarheid, infectie met het humaan papillomavirus (HPV), Helicobacter pylori, astma, hypertensie, hyperlipidemie, congestief hartfalen (CHF), gingivitis, orale submukeuze fibrose, polymorfe lichteruptie, pre-eclampsie en menopauzeklachten.

Veiligheid

Waarschijnlijk veilig

Indien oraal en op de juiste manier gebruikt in hoeveelheden die gewoonlijk in voedingsmiddelen worden aangetroffen (2406,7772,7773). Lycopeen-supplementen zijn veilig gebruikt in doses van 15 mg tot 45 mg per dag gedurende 4 tot 6 maanden (60389,60399,60482,102180,102182). Er zijn beperkte aanwijzingen dat 120 mg per dag veilig is gedurende maximaal een jaar (60372).

Zwangerschap

Gegevens zijn tegenstrijdig. In één onderzoek werd het innemen van een specifiek oraal lycopeensupplement (LycoRed, Jagsonpal Pharmaceuticals, India) 2 mg oraal per dag, beginnend tussen week 12 en 20 van de zwangerschap en doorlopend tot de bevalling, geassocieerd met een toename van het aantal vroeggeboorte en een laag geboortegewicht (60428). In een andere studie bleek het echter veilig te zijn om 2 mg van hetzelfde product tweemaal daags oraal in te nemen, beginnend tussen week 16 en 20 van de zwangerschap en door te gaan tot de bevalling (60337).

Lactatie

Wanneer geconsumeerd in hoeveelheden die gewoonlijk in voedingsmiddelen worden aangetroffen. Er is onvoldoende betrouwbare informatie beschikbaar over de veiligheid van lycopeen-supplementen die worden gebruikt tijdens borstvoeding; vermijd het gebruik in grotere hoeveelheden dan normaal in voedingsmiddelen.

Dosering & gebruik

Volwassenen

Oraal

Astma

Om inspanningsastma te voorkomen, is een specifiek tomatenextract (Lyc-O-Mato, LycoRed Natural Product Industries Ltd.) gebruikt dat gedurende één week 30 mg lycopeen levert (7898).

Goedaardige prostaathyperplasie (BPH)

15 mg Lycopeen (LycoVit-poeder, BASF) per dag gedurende 6 maanden is gebruikt (60399). Een combinatie van lycopeen 2,1 mg, pompoenpitolie 160 mg, kleinbloemig wilgenkruid 500 mg, pygeum 15 gram en saw palmetto 660 mg (ProstateEZE Max, Caruso's Natural Health) eenmaal daags gedurende 3 maanden is gebruikt (92164). Een combinatie van lycopeen 5 mg, saw palmetto 320 mg en selenium 50 mcg (Profluss, KonPharma) dagelijks gedurende 1 jaar is gebruikt (90354).

Chronische prostatitis en chronisch bekkenpijnsyndroom (CP / CPPS)

Een specifieke combinatie van lycopeen 5 mg met selenium 50 mcg en zaagpalmetto 320 mg (Profluss, KonPharma), dagelijks gedurende 8 weken ingenomen, is gebruikt (60442).

Door inspanning veroorzaakte spierschade

Een combinatieproduct (Lycored Ltd.) dat lycopeen 5 mg, andere carotenoïden 4 mg, foliumzuur 0,1 mg, tocoferolen 4 mg en rozemarijnextract eenmaal daags gedurende 4 weken bevat, is gebruikt (98825).

Gingivitis

Er is een specifiek tomatenextract (LycoRed, Jagsonpal Pharmaceuticals) gebruikt dat gedurende 2 weken 8 mg lycopeen levert (60400).

Hyperlipidemie:

Er werd een specifiek tomatenextract (LycoRed, Jagsonpal Pharmaceuticals) gebruikt dat 6 maanden lang lycopeen 4 mg per dag levert (60371). Vijftig gram van een halfgedroogde tomaat met lycopeen 22,0-27,8 mg per dag gedurende 12 weken is gebruikt (102180).

Hypertensie

Een specifiek tomatenextract (Lyc-O-Mato of Tomato Nutrient Complex, LycoRed, Ltd.) dat dagelijks 15-30 mg lycopeen levert, werd gedurende 6-8 weken gebruikt (14287,60415,102182).

Onvruchtbaarheid bij de man

Lycopeen 2 mg tweemaal daags gedurende 3 maanden is gebruikt (60340).

Orale leukoplakie

Een specifiek tomatenextract (LycoRed, Jagsonpal Pharmaceuticals) dat lycopeen 2 mg tot 4 mg tweemaal daags gedurende 3 maanden levert, is gebruikt (15748).

Orale submukeuze fibrose

Een specifiek tomatenextract (LycoRed, Jagsonpal Pharmaceuticals of MintovitL van Obsurge Biotech Limited), dat lycopeen 4-8 mg oraal tweemaal daags gedurende 2-6 maanden levert, is gebruikt (60381,98823,102181).

Polymorfe lichtuitbarsting

Een combinatie van lycopeen 2,5 mg, bètacaroteen 4,7 mg en Lactobacillus johnsonii 500 miljoen CFU (Inneov Sun Sensitivity, Laboratoires Innéov) werd gedurende 12 weken dagelijks gebruikt (90276).

Pre-eclampsie

Een specifiek tomatenextract (LycoRed, Jagsonpal Pharmaceuticals) dat lycopeen 2 mg tweemaal daags levert, werd gebruikt vanaf week 12 tot week 20 van de zwangerschap en ging door tot de bevalling (60337,60428).

Prostaatkanker

Om de progressie van hoogwaardige intra-epitheliale prostaatneoplasie tot kanker te voorkomen, is een specifiek tomatenextract (Lyc-O-Mato, LycoRed Natural Product Industries Ltd.) dat lycopeen 4 mg levert, gedurende 1 jaar tweemaal daags gebruikt (14126). Voor de behandeling van prostaatkanker, specifieke tomatenextractproducten (LycoRed, Jagsonpal Pharmaceuticals; Lyc-O-Mato, LycoRed Natural Product Industries Ltd.) die lycopeen 10 mg tot 30 mg per dag leveren als een enkele dosis of tweemaal daags verdeeld gedurende 3 weken tot 6 weken. maanden zijn gebruikt (7771,60353,60397,60458). Lycopeen (Puritans Pride) 15 mg per dag gedurende 6 maanden is gebruikt (60417). Lycopeen 30 mg per dag uit tomatensausproducten is ook gebruikt gedurende 3 weken voorafgaand aan prostaatkankeroperaties (60328).

Zonnebrand

Lycopeen 10 mg tot 16 mg per dag gedurende 12 weken in de vorm van tomatenpuree of een tomatenextract (Lyc-O-Mato, LycoRed Natural Product Industries, Ltd.) is gebruikt (23012,60324,60452).

Lycopeen-supplementen worden over het algemeen goed verdragen, met als meest voorkomende bijwerkingen milde gastro-intestinale klachten (60372,60384,60417,60433,60464).

Interactie

Medicijnen

Anticoagulenten/plaatjesaggregatieremming

Lycopeen heeft in vitro antibloedplaatjeseffecten (60360,60375,92177). Theoretisch kan het gebruik van lycopeen-supplementen met anticoagulantia of plaatjesaggregatieremmers het risico op blauwe plekken en bloedingen vergroten.

Sommige van deze medicijnen bevatten aspirine; clopidogrel (Plavix); niet-steroïde anti-inflammatoire geneesmiddelen (NSAID's) zoals diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, anderen), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, anderen) en naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, anderen); dalteparine (Fragmin); enoxaparine (Lovenox); heparine; warfarine (Coumadin); en anderen.

Kruiden en supplementen

Anticoagulenten/plaatjesaggregatieremming

Lycopeen heeft in vitro plaatjesremmende effecten (60360,60375,92177). Theoretisch kan het gelijktijdige gebruik van lycopeen-supplementen met kruiden die anticoagulerende of plaatjesremmende werking hebben, het risico op bloedingen bij sommige mensen verhogen. Deze kruiden omvatten engelwortel, kruidnagel, danshen, moederkruid, knoflook, gember, ginkgo, ginseng Panax, paardenkastanje, rode klaver, kurkuma en andere.

Beta-carotenen

Er zijn aanwijzingen dat het dagelijks innemen van bètacaroteensupplementen van 20-60 mg de opname van lycopeen uit supplementen en uit de voeding verhoogt (2403,23015). Andere onderzoeken hebben echter gemeld dat bètacaroteensupplementen geen effect hebben op de serumspiegels van lycopeen (23017,23018) of dat ze de serumconcentraties van lycopeen verlagen (23016). Deze verschillen kunnen te wijten zijn aan andere factoren die de absorptie beïnvloeden, zoals of de supplementen tijdens of tussen de maaltijden werden ingenomen en hoeveel vet er aanwezig was, wat de opname verhoogt (94226).

Calcium

Calciumsupplementen kunnen de opname van lycopeen in de voeding verminderen. Een kleine klinische studie toont aan dat het nemen van een specifiek calciumcarbonaatsupplement (Cacit 500, Warner Chilcott) 500 mg tijdens het eten van een maaltijd die 19 mg lycopeen bevat, de biologische beschikbaarheid van lycopeen met 83 procent verlaagt in vergelijking met het eten van alleen de maaltijd met lycopeen 19 mg. Het mechanisme van dit effect is niet bekend; Het vermoeden bestaat echter dat calcium de opname van lycopeen in het maagdarmkanaal remt (95578).

Luteïne

Er zijn aanwijzingen dat het nemen van een enkele orale dosis van 24 mg luteïne de absorptie van lycopeen uit supplementen en uit de voeding vermindert, mogelijk als gevolg van concurrentie voor transport in chylomicronen. Het dagelijks innemen van 12 mg luteïne gedurende 3 weken heeft echter geen invloed op de plasmaspiegels van lycopeen (92165,94227).

Voeding

Olestra (vetvervanger)

Olestra kan de opname van lycopeen verstoren. Olestra verlaagt de serum-lycopeenspiegels bij gezonde mensen met ongeveer 30 procent (23019). Als u zowel olestra als lycopeen gebruikt, moet u ze enkele uren scheiden

Ziektes

Chirurgie

Lycopeen heeft in vitro antiplaatjeseffecten (60360,60375,92177). Lycopeen-supplementen kunnen overmatig bloeden veroorzaken als ze pre-operatief worden gebruikt. Vertel de patiënten om de lycopeen-supplementen ten minste 2 weken vóór electieve chirurgische ingrepen te staken.

Werkingsmechanisme

Algemeen

Lycopeen is een carotenoïde, maar het is geen voorloper van vitamine A. Het wordt gesynthetiseerd door planten en micro-organismen en wordt aangetroffen in voedingsmiddelen zoals tomaten, guave, roze grapefruit, rode sinaasappels, abrikozen, rozenbottels en watermeloen (7896,60484 60523,92173). Concentraties van lycopeen zijn vaak hoger in bewerkte versies van deze voedingsmiddelen vanwege waterverlies. Verse tomaten bevatten bijvoorbeeld 0,88 mg tot 7,74 mg per 100 gram, terwijl ketchup 9,9 mg tot 13,44 mg per 100 gram bevat (92165). De dagelijkse inname van lycopeen via de voeding varieert van ongeveer 1 mg / dag tot 10,5 mg / dag (92165). Lycopeen uit planten bevindt zich voornamelijk in de all-trans-configuratie die slecht wordt geabsorbeerd, maar door de hoge mate van onverzadiging kan cis-trans-isomerisatie plaatsvinden als reactie op licht, thermische energie en chemische reacties (1928,92173). In menselijk plasma is lycopeen aanwezig als een isomeer mengsel, met 50 procent als cis-isomeren (92173,92175). Lycopeen vormt ongeveer de helft van de carotenoïden in menselijk serum, en concentreert zich in de lipoproteïnefracties met lage en zeer lage dichtheid. Het concentreert zich ook in de bijnier, teelballen, prostaat, longen en huid (60488,60536,92173).

Ontstekingsremmende effecten

Vroeg klinisch onderzoek toont aan dat het dagelijks innemen van lycopeen in de vorm van V8 natriumarm 100 procent groentesap (Campbell Soup Co.) gedurende 30 dagen de C-reactieve proteïne (CRP) -spiegels verlaagt met 1,4 mg / dL bij vrouwen , maar niet bij mannen, met congestief hartfalen. De klinische betekenis van deze bevinding is onduidelijk (92170).

Antineoplastische effecten

Lycopeen heeft antioxiderende effecten en kan het risico op kanker verminderen door vrije radicalen op te vangen en singletzuurstof te blussen, die oxidatieve schade aan het DNA voorkomen (2401,7773). Van lycopeen wordt ook aangenomen dat het door kankerverwekkende stoffen geïnduceerde fosforylering van regulerende eiwitten, zoals p53- en Rb-antioncogenen, onderdrukt en de celdeling stopt in de G0-G1-celcyclusfase (60303,92173). Lycopeen kan beschermend zijn tegen carcinogeen-geïnduceerde pre-neoplastische laesies in de lever van de rat door in te werken op cytochroom P450-2E1 (92173). Het vermindert ook de cellulaire proliferatie veroorzaakt door insuline-achtige groeifactoren (60486,60579,92173).

Antiplatelet effecten

Lycopeen en een tomatenextract dat lycopeen bevat, remmen de activering van bloedplaatjes, inclusief de activering die wordt geïnduceerd door adenosinedifosfaat (ADP) en collageen, in vitro (60360,60375,92177). Mogelijke mechanismen zijn onder meer remming van de vorming van tromboxaan B2 en activering van de vorming van cyclisch GMP en nitraat in bloedplaatjes (60360).

Dermatologische effecten

Er is interesse in het gebruik van lycopeen om acne te voorkomen. Klinisch onderzoek bij gezonde patiënten suggereert dat het consumeren van ijs dat lycopeen bevat, het risico op het ontwikkelen van acne zou kunnen verminderen door het vervellen van de huid en de aanwezigheid van grampositieve bacteriën op de huid in vergelijking met de uitgangswaarde (102179). Deze studie werd beperkt door een gebrek aan vergelijking met placebo.

Lipidenverlagende effecten

De cholesterolverlagende effecten van lycopeen kunnen te wijten zijn aan remming van macrofaag hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzym A (HMG-CoA) reductase (60543,92173) en versterking van LDL-afbraak en verwijdering uit de circulatie (7896,60543).

Preventie bij zonnebrand

Lycopeen kan door UV-licht veroorzaakte huidbeschadiging helpen voorkomen door reactieve zuurstofsoorten op te vangen en UVA- en UVB-golflengten te absorberen (60487). Het lycopeenmolecuul verandert door deze processen, wat resulteert in verlaagde lycopeengehaltes in de huid (60510).

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  • 60446 Mackinnon, E. S., Rao, A. V., Josse, R. G., and Rao, L. G. Supplementation with the antioxidant lycopene significantly decreases oxidative stress parameters and the bone resorption marker N-telopeptide of type I collagen in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos.Int. 2011;22(4):1091-1101.  
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  • 60450 Stangl, V., Kuhn, C., Hentschel, S., Jochmann, N., Jacob, C., Bohm, V., Frohlich, K., Muller, L., Gericke, C., and Lorenz, M. Lack of effects of tomato products on endothelial function in human subjects: results of a randomised, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Br.J.Nutr. 2011;105(2):263-267.  
  • 60452 Rizwan, M., Rodriguez-Blanco, I., Harbottle, A., Birch-Machin, M. A., Watson, R. E., and Rhodes, L. E. Tomato paste rich in lycopene protects against cutaneous photodamage in humans in vivo: a randomized controlled trial. Br.J.Dermatol. 2011;164(1):154-162.  
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  • 60478 Gee, A. C., Kiraly, L., McCarthy, M. S., and Martindale, R. Nutrition support and therapy in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Curr Gastroenterol.Rep 2012;14(4):349-355.  
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Gerelateerde aandoeningen

Aandoening Dagdosering*
Cholesterol 1 x daags 2 tot 4 mg
Goedaardige prostaatvergroting (BPH) 1-3 x daags 15 mg
Hypertensie 1 x daags 15-30 mg
Vruchtbaarheid mannen, verminderd 2 x daags 2 mg