Vitamine C

Synoniem: 
Acide Ascorbique
Acide L-Ascorbique
Acido Ascorbico
Ascorbate
Ascorbate de Calcium
Ascorbate de Sodium
Ascorbyl Palmitate
Calcium Ascorbate
Cevitamic Acid
Iso-Ascorbic Acid
L-Ascorbic Acid
Magnesium Ascorbate
Palmitate d'Ascorbyl
Selenium Ascorbate
Sodium Ascorbate
Vitamine Antiscorbutique

Wetenschappelijke naam

Ascorbic acid

Inleiding

Er zijn verschillende verbindingen van vitamine C. Voor een hoge inname van vitamine C is de ascorbinezuur (de voordeligste) niet zo geschikt vanwege de zure vorm. De betere vormen zijn de ascorbaten, deze zijn gebonden aan bijvoorbeeld calcium of magnesium waardoor de vitamine C ontzuurd is en gebufferd, zoals calciumascorbaat of magnesiumascorbaat. Deze mineraalascorbaten, zijn milder voor de maagwand. Deze gebufferde vorm van vitamine C wordt zeer goed opgenomen. Onderzoeken naar de werking van de mineraalascorbaten hebben aangetoond dat de resorptie twee maal zo snel verloopt vergeleken bij toediening van ascorbinezuur.

Natuurlijke componenten zoals de bio flavonoïde OPC, quercetine, zink, koper en glutathion laat zich goed combineren met vitamine C en heeft hierdoor extra voordelen bij hooikoorts, immuundeficiëntie, griep, zwakke vaatwanden en voor het ontgiften.

Vitamine C is water oplosbaar met één uitzondering en dat is de vet oplosbare vorm ascorbyl palmitaat. Deze vorm wordt vooral door onze hersenen gebruikt als voedingsstof om te kunnen herstellen.

De meeste zoogdieren kunnen zelf vitamine C aanmaken met uitzondering van de mens en de cavia. De hoeveelheden zijn enkele tientallen milligrammen per kilogram lichaamsgewicht per dag. Vooral onder stress kan dit getal enorm oplopen. De mens kan geen vitamine C synthetiseren en is volkomen afhankelijk van de uit voeding afkomstige vitamine C. Vooral in ons leefmilieu waar veel stress factoren aanwezig zijn heeft de mens veel meer vitamine C nodig dan wordt gedacht. In ons hele lichaam wordt vitamine C gebruikt en onze bijnieren en hypofyse hebben een bijzonder hoge concentratie. Verder hebben de skeletspieren en lever veel vitamine C nodig.

Vitamine C is ook noodzakelijk voor al ons bindweefsel, gewrichten, botten, pezen, huid en spieren. Vitamine C speelt een essentiële rol in de synthese van hormonen en neurotransmitters. In allerlei metabole stofwisselingen speelt vitamine C een rol zo ook de omzetting van cholesterol in galzuren, de afbraak van tyrosine, de mineraalhuishouding en carnitine. Vitamine C is ook een belangrijke antioxidant in het lichaam die ons beschermt tegen vrije radicalen schade. Vitamine C helpt ook het lichaam te ontgiften van zware metalen zoals lood, kwikzilver, cadmium en nikkel. Vitamine C speelt samen met zink een belangrijke rol voor het immuunsysteem. Vitamine C kent een goede synergie met OPC in het gezond en elastisch te houden van de bloedvaten en is goed bij spataderen.

Gebruik

Oraal, wordt vitamine C gebruikt voor het voorkomen en behandelen van scheurbuik; het voorkomen van een tekort bij mensen met gastro-intestinale ziekten en bij chronische totale parenterale voeding tekort of chronische hemodialyse; het verhogen van ijzerabsorptie uit het maagdarmkanaal; en het verhogen van de snelheid van genezing van wonden, verbrandingen, breuken, ulcera en doorligwonden. Het wordt gebruikt voor urine aanzuring(ascorbinezuur), het behandelen van idiopathische methemoglobinemie, het corrigeren van tyrosinemie bij prematuren die op eiwitrijke diëten leven; bij verhoogde ijzeruitscheiding, het voorkomen en behandelen van de gewone verkoudheid en andere virale infecties, bronchitis, humaan immunodeficiëntie virus (HIV ) ziekte, Helicobacter pylori infectie, tuberculose, dysenterie, furunculosis, hematurie, retinale bloedingen, hemorragische staten, en bloedarmoede. Vitamine C wordt ook oraal gebruikt voor atherosclerose, preventie van vasculaire trombose, myocardiaal infarct, beroerte, hoge bloeddruk, het verlagen van cholesterol, glaucoom, voorkomen van staar, preventie galblaas ziekte, cariës, pyorrhea, tandvleesinfecties, constipatie, maagzweer, acne, dermatitis, verbeteren immuunsysteem, varkensgriep, allergische rhinitis (hooikoorts), astma, bronchitis, cystische fibrose, cystitis, prostatitis, onvruchtbaarheid, en diabetes. Het wordt ook oraal gebruikt voor mentale depressie, cognitieve stoornissen, dementie, ziekte van Alzheimer, de fysieke en mentale stress, vermoeidheid, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronisch vermoeidheidssyndroom (CFS), autisme, collageen ziekten, artritis en bursitis, rugpijn en inflammatie in de wervels, kanker, osteogenesis imperfecta, osteoporose en jicht. Andere toepassingen zijn het verbeteren van uithoudingsvermogen, ziekte van Lyme, verminderen veroudering, zonnesteek, voor het tegengaan van de bijwerkingen van cortisone en verwante drugs, en bij de behandeling van levodopa, succinylcholine, interferon, aspirine en arseen toxiciteit. Andere toepassingen zijn het gebruik als adjuvans bij radiotherapie en behandeling van chronische straling proctitis. Het wordt ook gebruikt om humaan immunodeficiëntie virus (HIV) overdracht naar de borstvoeding te voorkomen.

Uitwendig wordt vitamine C gebruikt voor het verbeteren van huidaandoeningen, beschermt tegen vrije radicalen en verontreinigende stoffen, en voor het verbeteren foto-verouderde huid. Het wordt ook topisch toegepast bij ulceratieve mucositis geassocieerd met bestralingstherapie.

Parenteraal, wordt vitamine C gebruikt voor de preventie en behandeling van vitamine C-tekort en corrigeren tyrosinemie bij prematuren op eiwitrijke diëten.

Indicaties

Vitamine C is een essentiële vitamine en betrokken bij vrijwel alle ziektebeelden. De indicatielijst is dan ook enorm lang en eigenlijk zou vitamine C standaard suppletie moeten zijn.

  • Lage vitamine C-inname / vitamine C-tekort
  • Infectieziekten (ook preventie)
  • activering van het afweersysteem
  • herstel na ziekte
  • preventie van ziekten
  • Verzwakt immuunsysteem
  • verkouden
  • Weefselopbouw
  • Wondgenezing
  • Veroudering
  • Stress
  • Roken en alcohol gebruik
  • Allergie
  • Oogaandoeningen (cataract, leeftijdsgerelateerde maculadegeneratie, glaucoom)
  • Wondheling (wonden, brandwonden, botfracturen, zweren)
  • Hart- en vaatziekten, atherosclerose (ook preventie), preventie boezemfibrilleren
  • Melasma
  • Jicht
  • Ondersteuning ijzeropname (bij ijzersuppletie)
  • Luchtwegaandoeningen zoals bronchitis, astma, COPD
  • Preventie urineweginfectie (tijdens zwangerschap)
  • Diabetes
  • Bij sport (blessures)
  • Kanker(preventie)
  • Koorts
  • Bij osteoartritis
  • Osteoporose (preventie)
  • Postoperatieve pijn
  • Bij gewrichtsaandoeningen zoals artrose of reumatoïde artritis
  • Vrije radicalen pathologie
  • Allergieën (anti-histamine)
  • Cognitieve achteruitgang
  • Depressie
  • Neurodegeneratieve ziekten (epilepsie)
  • Galstenen
  • Gastritis
  • Ontstekingen
  • Detoxificatie
  • Bescherming tegen schade door UV-straling, radioactieve straling
  • Niet-alcoholische steatohepatitis
  • Ondersteuning leverdetoxificatie en eliminatie zware metalen
  • Verminderde vruchtbaarheid (mannen, vrouwen)
  • Reisziekte
  • Parodontitis
  • Migraine profylaxe

Bronnen

De voornaamste voedingsbronnen zijn groenten, fruit, aardappelen, (orgaan)vlees

Tekenen van een mogelijk tekort

Bij bepaalde tekenen kan men denken aan een vitamine C tekort zoals bij een verminderde weerstand en vermoeidheid. Maar ook kan algehele zwakte, spierpijn, gebrek aan eetlust, zwak bindweefsel, bloedend tandvlees of andere bloedingen, neuropathie, oedeem, slechte wondheling tekenen zijn van een tekort aan vitamine C.

Contra-indicaties

Een megadosis vitamine C worden afgeraden bij:

  • Chemotherapie, bestraling
  • IJzerstapeling (thalassemie, hemochromatose)
  • Sterk verminderde nierfunctie
  • Zwangerschap, lactatie

Dosering

Volgens de orthomoleculaire geneeswijze is er meer vitamine C nodig dan wat in het algemeen wordt geadviseerd.

Een dagdosering van 1000 mg wordt gezien als minimale dosis. Wanneer de vitamine C een gebufferde vorm heeft kan men volstaan met de helft.

Een therapeutische dosering is de dosering 2 x hoger.

Bij griep of verkoudheid neemt men tijdelijk elke 2 uur 700 mg vitamine C in combinatie met zink en OPC. Bij voorkeur wordt vitamine C gegeven in combinatie met de bio flavonoïde OPC, quercetine, L-Glutathion (gereduceerd), zink, koper en mangaan. Dit complex zorgt voor een optimale opname en voorkomt de afbraak van koper en kent een synergie voor gezonde bloedvaten, immuunsysteem en is goed bij hooikoorts.

Veiligheid

Vitamine C in de vorm van ascorbinezuur wordt als veilig beschouwd en wordt met een dosering tot 2000 mg goed verdragen. Hogere doseringen kunnen maagdarmklachten veroorzaken zoals misselijkheid, gasvorming, buikkramp of diarree. In de ascorbaat vorm kunnen hogere doseringen goed verdragen worden. De EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) constateert dat vitamine C een lage acute toxiciteit heeft en heeft geen veilige bovengrens van inname voor vitamine C bepaald (The EFSA Journal (2004) 59, 1-21).

Interacties met kruiden en medicijnen

Vitamine C verhoogt chroom absorptie. De hoeveelheid chroom geabsorbeerd uit 1000 mcg dosering werd ongeveer verdubbeld wanneer vitamine C 100 mg tegelijk werd gegeven. Het is niet bekend of het scheiden van de doses door verscheidene uren er tussen te laten, deze interactie vermijdt.

Lage doses vitamine C lijken niet van invloed te zijn op de koperabsorptie. Hoge doses vitamine C (1500 mg per dag) kunnen serumspiegels van koper en kopertransporteiwit, ceruloplasmine verlagen bij jonge mannen. Bij hoge dosering vitamine C is het raadzaam om extra koper te suppleren.

Voorlopige gegevens wijzen erop dat patiënten met hypertensie die beiden vitamine C 500 mg / dag plus OPC elkaar versterken in de regulering van de bloeddruk.

Vitamine C verhoogt de absorptie van ijzer. De hoeveelheid vitamine C in de voeding is een factor in de voeding absorptie van ijzer en ijzer-status. Het effect van vitamine C op de ijzerstatus lijkt groter te zijn bij mensen met ijzertekort in vergelijking met mensen met voldoende ijzerspiegels. Vitamine C kan het effect tegengaan van stoffen die ijzerabsorptie remmen zoals dieet fytaten, polyfenolen en tannines, eventueel door het chemisch verminderen van ijzer en voorkomen van de vorming van de minder oplosbare ferriverbindingen. Voorlopige gegevens wijzen erop dat vitamine C-supplementen vitamine B12 kan verminderen. Echter, andere componenten van levensmiddelen, zoals ijzer en nitraat, kan dit effect tegengaan. Deze interactie blijkt klinisch niet significant en kan waarschijnlijk worden vermeden als vitamine C supplementen ten minste 2 uren na de maaltijd wordt ingenomen.

Bijwerkingen

Bij een megadosering vitamine C die hoger ligt dan het lichaam nodig heeft kan de vitamine C die niet wordt opgenomen water aantrekken in de dikke darm en diarree veroorzaken. Dit verschijnsel is volkomen ongevaarlijk en verdwijnt weer zodra vitamine C dosering wordt verlaagd.

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