Griffonia Extract

Synoniem: 
5 Hydroxy-Tryptophan
5 Hydroxy-Tryptophane
5-Hydroxy L-Tryptophan
5-Hydroxy L-Tryptophane
5-Hydroxy Tryptophan
5-L-Hydroxytryptophan
L-5 HTP
L-5-Hydroxytryptophan
L-5-Hydroxytryptophane
Oxitriptan
5-HTP

Wetenschappelijke naam

5-hydroxytryptophan; L-5 hydroxytryptophan

Griffonia (natuurlijke bron van 5-HTP)

De zaden van de plant Griffonia bevatten een rijkdom aan 5-HTP welke door de hersenbloedbarrière gaan en worden in de hersenen omgezet in serotonine. Serotonine is een belangrijke stof om omgezet te kunnen worden in melatonine zodat mensen goed kunnen slapen bij het gebruik van Griffonia. Bij een tekort aan serotonine kan depressie ontstaan, vreetbuien krijgen of slapeloosheid veroorzaken. De reguliere medicijnen zoals SSRI’s of MAO remmers worden vaak gegeven om het serotonine peil omhoog te brengen. Griffonia of 5HTP verhoogt direct de hoeveelheid serotonine zonder bijwerkingen. Griffonia is goed inzetbaar bij depressie, slapeloosheid, eetstoornissen en fibromyalgie. Fibromyalgie gaat meestal gepaard met slaapproblemen.

Gebruik

5-HTP of Griffonia wordt gebruikt bij slaapproblemen, depressie, angst, migraine en spanningshoofdpijn, fibromyalgie, eetbuien (PMDD), ADHD, ataxie, Down syndrome, Ramsey-Hunt syndroom en als aanvullende therapie bij de ziekte van Parkinson.

Veiligheid

5-HTP kan veilig worden gebruikt bij gebruikelijke doseringen. Er is enige bezorgdheid met betrekking tot het krijgen van eosinophilia myalgia syndroom (EMS) bij hoge en langdurige dosering van de 5-HTP zelf en bij bepaalde factoren (1, 2). Bij zwangerschap en bij lactatie wordt het afgeraden te nemen.

Indicatie

Slaapproblemen

Het hormoon dat bekend staat als slaaphormoon is melatonine. Het wordt uit serotonine aangemaakt en wordt als het donker wordt in het lichaam aangemaakt. Melatoninevorming is een methyleringsreactie en SAMe is een belangrijke cofactor. 5-HTP blijkt vooral de hoeveelheid REM-slaap te verhogen. De gebruikelijke dosering die wordt gebruikt om slaapproblemen te verbeteren zijn 100 tot 200 mg per dag (3).

Depressie

Het nemen van 5 HTP verbetert significant verschijnselen van depressie inclusief de ernstige gevallen van depressie (4, 5, 6). Het is bewezen dat 5-HTP kan concurreren met de gebruikelijke medicinale anti-depressiva zoals fluvoxamine (Luvox) en imipramine (Tofranil) (6, 7). Er kan theoretisch worden aangenomen dat het nemen van 5HTP de werking van andere middelen zoals SAMe of St. Janskruid versterkt voor het aanmaken van serotonine niveau’s (8).

Fibromyalgie

Mensen die lijden aan fibromyalgie blijken een lage serotonine en tryptofaan gehalte te hebben. Dit is de reden dat anti-depressiva nog weleens kan helpen bij de symptomen van fibromyalgie. Het nemen van 5-HTP of beter Griffonia helpt bij de symptomen van fibromyalgie zowel bij pijn, ochtendstijfheid als slapeloosheid (9, 10, 11).

Angst

Er is enig bewijs dat het innemen van 5-HTP helpt bij het verminderen van angststoornissen (12).

Cerebellar ataxie

Er is bewijs dat het innemen van 5-HTP helpt bij het verminderen van cerebellar ataxie (13).

Obesitas

Voorlopig bewijs suggereert dat het innemen van 5-HTP kan helpen om hongergevoel te verminderen, en daarmee calorie inname en gewichtsverlies bij obesitas patiënten (14). Een tekort aan serotonine kan namelijk leiden tot overgewicht. Mensen gaan bij onrustgevoelens meer koolhydraten nuttigen. Door de insulinespiegels die daardoor stijgen worden de suikers omgezet in vetweefsel.

Werkingsmechanisme

5 HTP wordt gerelateerd aan zowel L-tryptofaan als serotonine. L-tryptofaan wordt in het lichaam omgezet in 5 HTP die vervolgens wordt omgezet in serotonine. 5-HTP passeert de hersenbloedbarrière en verbetert het centraal zenuw stelsel door de omzetting van serotonine (5). Serotonine heeft invloed op de slaap, het hongergevoel, temperatuur, sexuele gedrag en pijnbeleving. Serotonine heeft ook een belangrijke rol bij depressie, angst en agressie (8). Aangezien 5-HTP het serotonine gehalte kan verhogen, wordt 5-HTP gebruikt bij verschillende ziekteverschijnselen zoals depressie, slapeloosheid, overgewicht en verschillende andere condities. 5-HTP wordt gemetaboliseerd door monoamine oxidase en aldehyde dehydrogenase tot 5-hydroxyindoleactisch zuur (5-HIAA), welke via de urine wordt uitgescheiden. Normaal is een uitscheiding van 3-15 mg 5-HIAA in 24 uur maar kan hoger zijn als 5-HTP wordt ingenomen als supplement (15). De synthese van serotonine in de hersenen is afhankelijk van de aanvoer van de serotonineprecursors tryptofaan en 5-hydroxytryptofaan (5-HTP) via de bloedbaan.

Contra indicaties

Niet gebruiken bij scleroderma (16). Over het gebruik van 5-HTP tijdens de zwangerschap of de lactatieperiode zijn geen gegevens bekend en is het advies om het niet te gebruiken.

Bijwerkingen

De synthetische 5-HTP kan mogelijk darmproblemen zoals zuurbranden, maagpijn, boeren uitlokken (7, 15, 17). Dit is een snel voorbijgaand verschijnsel en kan worden voorkomen door de dosering langzaam op te bouwen. Dit is zover bekend niet het geval bij Griffonia.

Interacties met medicijnen

Het nemen van 5 HTP kan beter niet ingenomen worden als er ook medicijnen genomen worden die inwerken op het serotonine gehalte zoals (SSRI’s) Prozac, Paxill, Zoloft en andere anti-depressiva (18).

Dosering

Bij depressie wordt een doses van 100 tot 300 mg dagelijks gebruikt (4, 7). Voor de behandeling van fibromyalgie wordt 3 x daags 100 mg gebruikt gedurende 1 maand (11). De gebruikelijke dosering die wordt gebruikt om slaapproblemen te verbeteren zijn 100 tot 200 mg per dag. Aanschaf van Griffonia heeft de voorkeur boven 5-HTP. Let wel op bij aanschaf dat Griffonia gestandariseerd is 95% 5-HTP zodat 100 mg per capsule gehaald wordt. Meestal is het extract gestandariseerd op 20% en dan heb je 500 mg nodig.

Referenties: 
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  2. FDA Talk Paper. Impurities confirmed in dietary supplement 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan. August 31, 1998
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  12. Kahn RS, Westenberg HG. L-5-hydroxytryptophan in the treatment of anxiety disorders. J Affect Disord 1985;8:197-200.
  13. Trouillas P, Brudon F, Adeleine P. Improvement of cerebellar ataxia with levorotatory form of 5-hydroxytryptophan: a double-blind study with quantified data processing. Arch Neurol 1988;45:1217-22.
  14. Cangiano C, Ceci F, Cancino A, et al. Eating behavior and adherence to dietary prescriptions in obese adult subjects treated with 5-hydroxytryptophan. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;56:863-7.
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Gerelateerde aandoeningen

Aandoening Dagdosering*
ADHD 5 mg per 1 kg lichaamsgewicht (per dag)
Angst 1 x daags 100 mg
Ataxie 1 x daags 100 mg
Depressie 1 tot 3 maal daags 100 mg (100 mg voor het slapen gaan)
Fibromyalgie 1 tot 3 maal daags 100 mg
Jetlag 1 x daags 75 mg
Migraine 1 x daags 100 mg
Slaapstoornissen 1 x daags 100 mg 's avonds innemen